Hard rock mining is an underground mining method that is used to mine extremely hard materials, such as those containing ores such as the valuable metals we are going after, specifically gold. The excavation of these hard golds, silvers, diamonds, and other minerals requires a few things that we will be discussing and we will also mention the methods and techniques applied, as they are very different from the placer mining we have been discussing at length. Let us explore.
The first obvious thing you need to work on underground hard rock mining is underground access. There are ways to get this done. There can be what is called a decline, which involves a tunnel with either spirals downward or slowly heads towards the target at a slight angle.
These are started into a rock side or the side of an already dug cave. There will often be load-bearing supports brought in to help keep everyone safe. Another method is just a mine shaft, which is a vertical well-type hole dug next to the body of rock you will be working on. You can also haul the ore out this way as well with buckets. Finally, there are adits, which are horizontal caves or excavations dug level and to the side of ore bodies where you don’t need any kind of ramp or spiral decline.